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Mason Collins
Mason Collins

An Exhilaratingly Organized Literature Mod


'The extent of Duncan's committment to the guiding philosophy which he embraced is made clear in the texts of a number of 'tablets' preserved in the Ashmolean library ... intended to be hung from the appropriate display cases. That destined for the first cabinet reveals that the exhibits displayed there were chosen to illustrate ... the characteristics of 'unorganized objects' (stones, minerals) [were] contrasted with those of an 'organized object' (a clock displayed under glass in order to show its mechanism), the whole exemplifying 'power directed by Intelligence to good ends in the works of the Divine Creator. Ten other tablets ... deal with aspects of human and comparative anatomy, zoology, botany and astronomy ...'




An Exhilaratingly Organized Literature Mod



p. 356 'The second tendency in Edwardian scholarship is more often connected with Cambridge and the influence of Sir James Frazer's Golden Bough ... But there was a more firmly grounded contemporary movement in Oxford. L.R. Farnell had been a protagonist of the importance of archaeology and comparative studies for the history of ancient religions since the eighties, and Gilbert Murray was a strong exponent of the importance of anthropology for the classics ... The Oxford department of Anthropology owes its origins to classical scholars: although E.B. Tylor had been appointed Reader in Anthropology in 1884, and was later made Professor, no formal course in the subject existed until his retirement in 1909. Meanwhile a Committee for Anthropology had been formed in 1905 with J.L. Myres as its first secretary; and a Diploma in Social Anthropology was sanctioned by Convocation nem.con in June. Myres was succeeded by the first lecturer in the subject, R.R. Marett in 1907, and formal teaching began the next year with a set of six public lectures on 'Anthropology and the Classics', delivered under the auspices of the Committee and organized by Marett; the lectures were given by Arthur Evans, Andrew Lang, Gilbert Murray, F.B. Jevons, J.L. Myres, and Warde Fowler. The Diploma was first examined in 1909.'


p. 690-1 'The kind of imperialism which grew up in late nineteenth-century Oxford may be understood in the light of two earlier, and as it seemed to many Oxford men, cataclysmic events. One was the Tractarian or Oxford Movement of the 1830s and 1840s: the bitter theological feuds led to a reaction against organized religion. Secondly, the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species and the Descent of Man caused a wide questioning of the truths of [p, 691] the Bible. J. Macmillan-Brown described in his memoirs how undergraduates at Balliol in the 1870s had broken loose from their religious moorings, influenced not only by Winwood Reade's Martyrdom of Man (a favourite book of Cecil Rhodes) but also be ethnological works which suggested that much of the fundamental doctrine of the Christian creed originated in the beliefs of primitive peoples, rather than in divine inspiration. ... For a number of men of very different characters such as Rhodes, Milner, ... the imperial cause came to have a mystical nature which to some extent provided a substitute for, or annexe to, their religious faith. ...'


When Mackinder left Oxford ... in 1904, he was succeeded by A.J. Herbertson, who had an equal enthusiasm for Empire. Under him the Geography school organized lectures for the ICS probationers and taught surveying to those from Sudan. ..'


Traditional software development methodologies are based on pre-organized phases/stages of the software development lifecycle. Here the flow of development is unidirectional, from requirements to design and then to development, then to testing and maintenance. In classical approaches like the Waterfall model, each phase has specific deliverables and detailed documentation that have undergone a thorough review process.


Cisneros's first published work was a poetry chapbook called Bad Boys (1980). In the years immediately after graduate school, Cisneros taught at an alternative high school in Chicago, became active within the Chicano community, and worked briefly for Loyola. She also was the recipient of two National Endowment for the Arts fellowships, including one for fiction in 1982 and one for poetry in 1987. In 1984, Cisneros worked as the literature director of the Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center in San Antonio, Texas, the city she began calling home.


The coming-of-age story is one of the most popular in literature. In this type of fiction, a young protagonist, through adventures and misadventures, learns something important about life and grows from a child into an adult. In general, this growth signals a positive movement for the protagonist.


While the word image is generally associated with the sense of sight, the word imagery is used more broadly in literature. It refers to language, often figurative rather than literal, that appeals to any of the senses. Thus, a poem or story could have auditory imagery, appealing to the sense of hearing; gustatory imagery, appealing to the sense of taste; tactile imagery, appealing to the sense of touch; kinesthetic imagery, appealing to the sense of movement; or olfactory imagery, appealing to the sense of smell. Because imagery is presented through very concentrated language, it is generally more common in poetry than in prose.


In the realm of the arts, the political activist and writer Roldolfo "Corky" Gonzales, with his 1967 epic poem "Yo Soy Joaquin" ("I Am Joaquin"), offered a new vision of what it means to be Chicano. As expressed by Gonzales in his poem, Chicanos are neither European nor indigenous but rather a combination of many identities, sometimes in conflict with each other. He also explores the myth of Aztlán, which he identifies as the legendary homeland of the Aztec people, located in the American Southwest. His work, as well as that of other activists, encouraged Chicanos throughout the country to value the strong cultural contributions they made to the American social fabric. Thus, one of the characteristics of the growing Chicano population in the United States in the last years of the twentieth century was the concomitant growth of cultural expression, as noted by Eva Fernández de Pinedo in her 2006 article "An Overview of Contemporary Chicano/a Literature." She writes: "The demographic rise in Chicanos/as during the last decades has been accompanied by the flowering of its cultural production, particularly literature."


Fernández de Pinedo accurately assesses the changing scene of Chicano literature during the 1980s and 1990s, the decades when Cisneros was writing The House on Mango Street and Woman Hollering Creek, and Other Stories: "After a period of male-dominated literary production, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed the emergence of Chicanas who dealt with gender and sexuality, issues largely ignored in previous Chicano writing." Indeed, the Chicana women who began writing in the 1980s and 1990s revitalized the movement through their inclusion of gender politics as an important consideration. The stories of women struggling with the twin yokes of patriarchy and racism struck a chord with both minority and majority readers.


That's not to say Cisneros believes she's done the best work of her career. "I'm looking forward to the books I'll write when I'm 60," she observes. She's also looking forward to the contributions other Latina and Latino writers will be making in the future. "There's a lot of good writing in the mainstream press that has nothing to say. Chicano writers have a lot to say. The influence of our two languages is profound. The Spanish language is going to contribute something very rich to American literature." 041b061a72


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