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Mason Collins
Mason Collins

A Practical Guide To Fetal Echocardiography Normal And Abnormal Hearts Pdf

Lavishly illustrated and easy to use, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of fetal heart examination and all major cardiac malformations. World-renowned experts in the field, Drs. Abuhamad and Chaoui, have meticulously updated and expanded this third edition while maintaining its systematic and methodical approach. New chapters, 25% new images, and a practical, concise format make this reference indispensable for both physicians and sonographers in the detection of congenital heart disease.

a practical guide to fetal echocardiography normal and abnormal hearts pdf


This simple and easy-to-use guide to fetal echocardiography will help physicians and sonographers obtain a complete evaluation of the normal and abnormal fetal heart. The book is written in a user-friendly style and thoroughly illustrated with ultrasound images accompanied by schematic drawings. This edition presents a comprehensive approach to the examination of the fetal heart and covers all major cardiac malformations. Chapters include color Doppler in fetal echocardiography, three-dimensional ultrasound in fetal echocardiography, first and early second trimester imaging of the fetal heart, and an updated genetics section. This book, written by internationally recognized experts in fetal echocardiography, is a must-have for physicians and sonographers interested in this field.

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr -/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr +/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr -/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

Cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin light chain (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis is characterized by myocardial interstitial deposition but can also cause obstructive deposits in the coronary microvasculature. We retrospectively identified 20 patients who underwent stress echocardiography within 1 year prior to the histologic diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. Only patients with cardiac amyloidosis and no known obstructive coronary disease were included. Stress echocardiograms (13 exercise; 7 dobutamine) were performed for evaluation of dyspnea and/or chest pain. Stress-induced wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) occurred in 11 patients (55%), 4 of whom had normal left ventricular wall thickness. Coronary angiogram was performed in 9 of 11 patients and demonstrated no or mild epicardial coronary artery disease. Seven (54%) patients had an abnormal exercise blood pressure which occurred with similar likelihood between those with and without stress-induced WMAs. Stress-induced WMAs and abnormal exercise blood pressure may occur in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis despite the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. This finding should raise the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis even in the absence of significant myocardial thickening.

Abstract FK506 binding protein12.6 (FKBP12.6) binds to the Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in cardiomyocytes and stabilizes RyR2 to prevent premature sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. Previously, two different mouse strains deficient in FKBP12.6 were reported to have different abnormal cardiac phenotypes. The first mutant strain displayed sex-dependent cardiac hypertrophy, while the second displayed exercise-induced cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. In this study, we tested whether FKBP12.6-deficient mice that display hypertrophic hearts can develop exercise-induced cardiac sudden death and whether the hypertrophic heart is a direct consequence of abnormal calcium handling in mutant cardiomyocytes. Our data show that FKBP12.6-deficient mice with cardiac hypertrophy do not display exercise-induced arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death. To investigate the role of FKBP12.6 overexpression for cardiac function and cardiomyocyte calcium release, we generated a transgenic mouse line with cardiac specific overexpression of FKBP12.6 using α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) promoter. MHC-FKBP12.6 mice displayed normal cardiac development and function. We demonstrated that MHC-FKBP12.6 mice are able to rescue abnormal cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal calcium release in FKBP12.6-deficient mice. PMID:22087651

Myocardial dyskinesia caused by the accessory pathway and related reversible heart failure have been well documented in echocardiographic studies of pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, the long-term effects of dyskinesia on the myocardium of adult patients have not been studied in depth. The goal of the present study was to evaluate regional myocardial abnormalities on cardiac CT examinations of adult patients with WPW syndrome. Of 74 patients with WPW syndrome who underwent cardiac CT from January 2006 through December 2013, 58 patients (mean [ SD] age, 52.2 12.7 years), 36 (62.1%) of whom were men, were included in the study after the presence of combined cardiac disease was excluded. Two observers blindly evaluated myocardial thickness and attenuation on cardiac CT scans. On the basis of CT findings, patients were classified as having either normal or abnormal findings. We compared the two groups for other clinical findings, including observations from ECG, echocardiography, and electrophysiologic study. Of the 58 patients studied, 16 patients (27.6%) were found to have myocardial abnormalities (i.e., abnormal wall thinning with or without low attenuation). All abnormal findings corresponded with the location of the accessory pathway. Patients with abnormal findings had statistically significantly decreased left ventricular function, compared with patients with normal findings (p

Tissues that depend on aerobic energy metabolism suffer most in diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cardiac abnormalities have been described in many cases, but their frequency and clinical spectrum among patients with mtDNA mutations is unknown. Thirty-nine patients with the 3243A>G mtDNA mutation were examined, methods used included clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram, Holter recording and echocardiography. Autopsy reports on 17 deceased subjects were also reviewed. The degree of 3243A>G mutation heteroplasmy was determined using an Apa I restriction fragment analysis. Better hearing level (BEHL0.5-4 kHz) was used as a measure of the clinical severity of disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed in 19 patients (56%) by echocardiography and in six controls (15%) giving an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval; 1.74-67). The dimensions of the left ventricle suggested a concentric hypertrophy. Left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction was observed in 11 patients. Holter recording revealed frequent ventricular extrasystoles (>10/h) in five patients. Patients with LVH differed significantly from those without LVH in BEHL0.5-4 kHz, whereas the contribution of age or the degree of the mutant heteroplasmy in skeletal muscle to the risk of LVH was less remarkable. Structural and functional abnormalities of the heart were common in patients with 3243A>G. The risk of LVH was related to the clinical severity of the phenotype, and to a lesser degree to age, suggesting that patients presenting with any symptoms from the mutation should also be evaluated for cardiac abnormalities.

Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors A and B (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) are highly homologous proteins that function as powerful coactivators of serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor essential for cardiac development. The SRF/MRTF complex binds to CArG boxes found in the control regions of genes that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and muscle contraction, among other processes. While SRF is required for heart development and function, the role of MRTFs in the developing or adult heart has not been explored. Through cardiac-specific deletion of MRTF alleles in mice, we show that either MRTF-A or MRTF-B is dispensable for cardiac development and function, whereas deletion of both MRTF-A and MRTF-B causes a spectrum of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. Defects observed in MRTF-A/B null mice ranged from reduced cardiac contractility and adult onset heart failure to neonatal lethality accompanied by sarcomere disarray. RNA-seq analysis on neonatal hearts identified the most altered pathways in MRTF double knockout hearts as being involved in cytoskeletal organization. Together, these findings demonstrate redundant but essential roles of the MRTFs in maintenance of cardiac structure and function and as indispensible links in cardiac cytoskeletal gene regulatory networks. PMID:26386146


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